January 22, 2014 - Charles Duhigg

  • 01/22/2014

NASA discovers a Martian doughnut, U.S. nuclear officers cheat on proficiency tests, the Westminster Dog Show allows mutts, and Charles Duhigg talks "The Power of Habit."

>> Stephen: TONIGHT, CAN WETRUST THE PEOPLE WITH THEIR

FINGER ON THE BUTTON?

I DON'T KNOW, WHERE'S THEIROTHER FINGER.

(LAUGHTER)THEN, A NEW WAY TO LIVE LIFE TO

THE FULLEST-- CONTINUE SITTINGON THE COUCH TO FIND OUT.

AND MY GUEST, JOURNALIST CHARLESDUHIGG SAYS WE MAKE MANY OF OUR

DECISIONS OUT OF PURE HABIT.

NOT TRUE.

I MOSTLY MAKE MY DECISIONS OUTOF PURE SPITE.

THE RECENT BLIZZARD CRACKED AGIANT GLASS PANEL AT NEW YORK'S

APPLE STORE.

THEY CAN GET IT FIXED FOR FREE--IF THEY DON'T TELL APPLE IT GOT

WET.

(LAUGHTER)THIS IS "THE COLBERT REPORT."

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)>> Stephen: WELCOME TO THE

"REPORT," EVERYBODY!

GOOD TO HAVE YOU WITH US!

(AUDIENCE CHANTING "STEPHEN")WHY NOT?

ARE YOU UP FOR IT?

I'LL DO IT!

I MIGHT AS WELL DO THE SHOW.

YOU READY TO DO THE SHOW,EVERYBODY?

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)I LIKE IT.

YES.

NATION, NATION, HERE IN NEW YORKCITY WE ARE JUST DIGGING OUT

FROM THE MASSIVE POLARNOR'SNOWSTER OF THE LAST 24

HOURS.

WE GOT 11 INCHES OF SNOW ANDTHAT'S IN FREEZING COLD WEATHER

BECAUSE, NORMALLY, IT'S LIKE 15INCHES.

(LAUGHTER)BUT I'LL TELL YOU WHO I AM MOST

WORRIED ABOUT WITH THIS STORM--SPACE.

(LAUGHTER)IT PROBABLY GOT HIT EXTRA HARD

BECAUSE IT'S CLOSER TO THE SKY.

(LAUGHTER)BUT THIS STORM IS NOT THE

BIGGEST NEWS IN SPACE TODAY.

JIM, YOU ARE GO FOR FOOTAGE!

>> NASA OFFICIALS SAY SOMETHINGVERY MYSTERIOUS HAS HAPPENED ON

MARS.

LIKE NOTHING THEY HAVE EVERBEFORE SEEN.

TAKE A LOOK AT THIS.

NOTICE -- NOTICE A BIGDIFFERENCE IN THESE TWO

PICTURES.

THIS IS TWO DIFFERENT PICTURESTAKEN OF THE SAME AREA.

YOU CAN SEE THE MARKINGS ON THEMARTIAN SURFACE THERE.

THEN THERE'S THIS THING.

A ROCK HAS APPEARED.

NASA SCIENTISTS SAY IT'S ABOUTTHE SIZE OF A JELLY DOUGHNUT

AND LOOKS LIKE A JELLY DOUGHNUTAS WELL.

>> Stephen: MARS HASDOUGHNUTS.

(LAUGHTER)FINALLY, WE'VE WAIT SO LONG FOR

THIS.

WE HAVE FINALLY FOUND AHABITABLE PLANET.

CALL OFF THE SEARCH FOR WATERAND START LOOKING FOR A LAKE OF

COOLATTA.

(LAUGHTER)NATION, THIS IS THE GREATEST

SPACE DISCOVERY SINCE GALILEOFOUND THE MILKY WAY.

(LAUGHTER)ACCORDING TO NASA, THIS OBJECT

IS VERY HIGH IN SULFUR ANDMAGNESIUM-- SO IT'S JUST AS

NUTRITIOUS AS DUNKIN'.

(LAUGHTER)FOLKS, THIS SPACE PASTRY OR

SPACETRY, IS GREAT NEWS FOR NASABECAUSE IT'S HARD TO FIND PEOPLE

WILLING TO SIT IN A TIN CAN FORSIX MONTHS TO GET TO MARS BUT WE

KNOW PEOPLE WILL WAIT ANY AMOUNTOF TIME FOR A CRONUT!

(LAUGHTER)NOW, OF COURSE, NOT EVERYONE OUT

THERE --(APPLAUSE).

PEOPLE LOVE SCIENCE.

(LAUGHTER)OF COURSE, NOT EVERYONE CAN

ACCEPT THE AMPLE EVIDENCE THATMARS IS COVERED IN DOUGHNUTS.

THE MARS ROVER'S LEAD SCIENTISTIS BAFFLED SAYING "IT'S LIKE

NOTHING WE'VE EVER SEEN.

I DON'T KNOW WHAT ANY OF THISMEANS.

WE'RE COMPLETELY CONFUSED."

(LAUGHTER)I DON'T SEE WHY.

I MEAN, CLEARLY WE FOUND LIFE ONMARS AND THE ALIENS ARE

DOUGHNUTS.

(LAUGHTER)THAT'S WHY AFTER YOU HAVE A

STOMACH FULL OF THEM YOU FEELLIKE THIS.

>> KILL ME!

(LAUGHTER)>> Stephen: AND THE MARTIANS

MUST BE UPSET ABOUT HOW MANY OFTHEM WE'VE EATEN.

SO BEFORE THEY STRIKE BACK, ITHINK SOMEONE NEEDS TO BROKER A

PEACE BETWEEN THESE TWO PLANETSSO I HAVE VOLUNTEERED.

ON MY WAY TO WORK THIS MORNING IPICKED UP A MARTIAN.

(LAUGHTER).

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)GREETINGS!

(LAUGHTER)I AM AN EARTHLING.

WE MEAN YOU KNOW NO HARM.

HOLD ON, I'VE GOT SOME ALIENSPORE ON MY FINGERS.

(LAUGHTER)(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)

>> Stephen: WELL, THAT DID NOTGO AS WELL AS I HAD HOPED.

(LAUGHTER)I HOPE THAT ALIEN DOESN'T UPSET

MY GLUTEN ALLERGY.

(LAUGHTER)NATION, THERE'S AN OLD SAYING:

OPINIONS ARE LIKE DEMO TAPES, IDON'T WANT TO HEAR YOURS.

(LAUGHTER)THIS IS TIP OF THE HAT, WAG OF

THE FINGER.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)NATION, I KNOW IT'S 2014 BUT I

STILL WORRY ABOUT NUCLEAR WAR.

I'M BEGINNING TO BE AFRAID THATWE MIGHT NOT HAVE ONE.

(LAUGHTER)I'VE BEEN DRINKING MY OWN URINE

FOR NOTHING.

(LAUGHTER)I'LL TELL YOU WHO'S NOT

BOLSTERING MY CONFIDENCE THATARMAGEDDON IS COMING-- THE

CLOWNS WHO RUN OUR NUCLEARPROGRAM.

>> 34 OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF OURNUCLEAR ARSENAL SAID TO BE

INVOLVED IN A SCHEME TO CHEAT ONA PROFICIENCY EXAM.

THEY'VE BEEN REMOVED FROM THEIRCOMMAND AND IT'S RAISING NEW

QUESTIONS ABOUT THE PEOPLE WITHTHEIR FINGERS ON THE BUTTON.

>> Stephen: HOW DO YOU CHEATAT NUCLEAR WEAPONS?

DO YOU WRITE "PUSH RED BUTTON"ON THE BACK OF YOUR HAND?

FOLKS, I'M GIVING A WAG OF MYFINGER TO THE AIR FORCE FOR

REMOVING THESE OFFICERS FROMDUTY.

HERE ME OUT.

SURE, OUR NUKE OPERATORS WERESENDING EACH OTHER TEXT MESSAGES

TO CHEAT ON ROUTINE PROFICIENCYTESTS.

BUT WHAT DO YOU EXPECT?

IT'S NOT LIKE THEY CAN COPY OFFTHE CHINESE KID!

HE'S THE ONE THEY'RE SUPPOSED TOBE NUKING!

(LAUGHTER)BESIDES, IF YOU THINK ABOUT IT,

CHEATING IS SUCH A MINOR OFFENSEWHEN YOU CONSIDER THEY WERE

ACTUALLY BEING INVESTIGATED FORDRUG ABUSE.

>> IT STARTED WITH A PROBE INTOILLEGAL DRUG POSSESSION.

>> AT LEAST TEN OFFICERS AT SIXDIFFERENT BASES IN THE U.S. AND

BRITAIN ARE SUSPECTED OFPOSSESSION OF SYNTHETIC

MARIJUANA AND ECSTASY.

>> Stephen: FOLKS, IT'SOBVIOUS THAT OUR NUCLEAR LAUNCH

CREWS ARE BORED.

(LAUGHTER)THEY'RE SUPPOSED TO BE ON HIGH

ALERT AT ALL TIMES FOR SOMETHINGTHEY KNOW WILL NEVER HAPPEN!

THEY'RE LIKE A HIGH SCHOOLFRENCH HORN PLAYER WITH A CONDOM

IN HIS POCKET.

(LAUGHTER)GIVE IT UP, TEDDY!

GIVE IT UP.

(APPLAUSE)ONLY THING YOU'RE GOING TO BE

FONDLING IS YOUR SPIT VALVE.

FOLKS, OUR NUKE CREWS CLEARLYNEED A SENSE OF PURPOSE.

CAN'T WE JUST LET THEM LAUNCHONE?

I SAY WE PICK A COUNTRY ATRANDOM AND LET HER RIP.

DO WE REALLY NEED MADAGASCAR ATTHIS POINT?

I MEAN, WE'VE GOT THE MOVIES!

(LAUGHTER)NEXT UP, NATION, WE'RE ALL

SHOCKED BY THE TRAGIC SHOOTINGAT A TAMPA MOVIE THEATER WHERE A

RETIRED POLICE OFFICER SHOT AMAN WHO WAS TEXTING ON A PHONE.

IT'S A SENSELESS TRAGEDY.

AND YOU KNOW WHAT THEY SAY?

THE ONLY WAY TO FIGHT SENSELESSIS WITH SENSELESS.

LUCKILY, FOX NEWS DR. KEITHABLOW'S MIDDLE NAME IS

"SENSELESS."

>> WE MAY HAVE TO LOOK ATSOMETHING I'LL CALL "DATA RAGE."

JUST LIKE ROAD RAGE.

WE KNOW THAT WHEN PEOPLEINTERACT WITH MACHINES THAT

SOMETIMES THEY FEEL EMBOLDENEDTO DO THINGS THAT THEY NEVER

WOULD.

THEY MAY BE IMPULSIVE TO BEGINWITH OR EXPLOSIVE.

ADD IN TECHNOLOGY OR A MACHINEAND THINGS CAN GO OVER THE TOP

AND BECOME VERY VIOLENT.

>> Stephen: EXACTLY.

THIS TAMPA MOVIE THEATER TRAGEDYWAS A TEXTBOOK CASE OF THE THING

KEITH ABLOW JUST YANKED OUT OFHIS ASS.

(LAUGHTER)DATA RAGE.

THIS MAY HAVE BEEN A NORMALARGUMENT BUT THERE WAS A

DISASTROUS AND DANGEROUS MACHINEINVOLVED.

NO, JIMMY, I SAID A DANGEROUSMACHINE.

THANK YOU.

(LAUGHTER)OKAY, SO I AM GIVING A TIP OF

THE HAT TO DR. KEITH ABLOW FORPOINTING OUT THAT TECHNOLOGY

LEADS TO VIOLENCE.

I KNOW EVERY TIME I SEE HIM ON ATELEVISION I WANT TO KILL

SOMEONE.

(LAUGHTER)(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)

(LAUGHTER)FINALLY, IT'S ALMOST TIME FOR

THE ANNUAL WESTMINSTER DOG SHOW.

I'M SO EXCITED I HAD TO CHANGETHE CARPET SEVERAL TIMES.

(LAUGHTER)UNFORTUNATELY, THE DOG SHOW HAS

BEEN A VERY BAD BOY.

>> A NEW BREED OF DOGS IS TAKINGOVER WESTMINSTER DOG SHOW--

MUTTS.

THE PREMIER U.S. CANINE EVENT ISALLOWING MIXED BREED

COMPETITORS.

THEY'LL BE INCLUDED IN ITS NEWAGILITY TRIAL.

THIS IS THE FIRST TIME DOGS OFMIXED BREED HAVE BEEN AT

WESTMINSTER IN ITS 138-YEARHISTORY.

>> Stephen: MUTTS INVADINGWESTMINSTER?

FOLKS, THIS IS A SLIPPERY SLOPE!

TODAY IT'S MUTTS, TOMORROW IT'SA FINISH SPITZ WHOSE COAT GOES

BEYOND DEEP AUBURN TO BROWN!

NEXT THING YOU KNOW, A GUY CANMARRY A BOX TURTLE.

(LAUGHTER)OH, IT'S COMING!

(APPLAUSE)FOR INSTANCE, SHELLEY HERE.

(APPLAUSE)FOR INSTANCE, SHELLEY HERE.

(LAUGHTER)SO --

(APPLAUSE).

A WAG OF THE FINGER,WESTMINSTER!

I AM JUST GRATEFUL THAT SHASTA,MY CHILDHOOD WELSH SPRINGER

SPANIEL, ISN'T AROUND TO SEETHIS.

HIS GREAT GRANDPARENTS DIDN'TSIT IN A CRATE ACROSS THE OCEAN

SO THEIR DESCENDANTS WOULD HAVETO SHARE A COURSE WITH SOME

PORTUGUESE CHORKIE.

YOU KNOW HOW YOU GET A CHORKIE,RIGHT?

YOU CROSS A YORKIE WITH A CHIMP.

(AUDIENCE REACTS)I ONLY PRAY THAT WORD OF THIS

DOES NOT REACH SHASTA AT THATFARM UPSTATE MY PARENTS SENT HIM

TO.

(LAUGHTER)HE'S HAD 25 GREAT YEARS UP

THERE.

I'M GOING TO VISIT YOU SOON,BUDDY.

(AUDIENCE REACTS)NOW, THIS YEAR'S AGILITY

COMPETITION WILL BE FULL OFSTREET TRAMPS LIKE ALFIE, AN

ATHLETIC CHARMING SEVEN-YEAR-OLDPOODLE TERRIER WHO WAS BOUGHT

FOR $99 AT A PET STORE.

NO SURPRISE.

I KNOW I'M NOT SUPPOSED TO SAYTHIS BUT THE MUTTS ARE VERY

ATHLETIC.

(AUDIENCE REACTS)YOU KNOW WHAT THEY SAY?

YOU KNOW WHAT THEY SAY?

PURE BREDS CAN'T JUMP.

BUT THAT HAS NOT CHANGED THEFACT THAT THE LAS KNEES WEIMER

DOODLES OF THE WORLD AREGENETICALLY INFERIOR.

THAT'S NOT MY OPINION, THAT'SSCIENCE.

I'M A TRAINED VETERINARYPHRENOLOGIST.

JUST LOOK AT THIS MISCREANT.

(AUDIENCE REACTS)RIGHT HERE.

YOU CAN FEEL RIGHT THERE, YOUCAN FEEL RIGHT THERE ON THE

SKULL THERE'S SOME NODULES.

HIS OVERSIZED ACQUISITIVENESSRIDGE IS CLEARLY

EVIDENCE OF A CRIMINAL MIND.

WHO'S AN INFERIOR CANINE?

YOU ARE!

YOU ARE!

(AUDIENCE REACTS)YOU WANT A LITTLE MARTIAN?

(LAUGHTER)(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)

SO, FOLKS, ENJOY THIS YEAR'SWESTMINSTER FARCE WHICH, IF YOU

ASK ME, BECAME INEVITABLE ONCETHEY STARTED ACCEPTING BREEDS

LESS PURE THAN WOLF.

WE'LL BE RIGHT BACK.

(CHEERS AND

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE).

>> Stephen: HEY, WELCOME BACK,EVERYBODY.

THANK YOU SO MUCH!

THANK YOU, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN.

NOW, NATION, YOU KNOW ME: IALWAYS LIVE MY LIFE TO THE

FULLEST.

I NEVER WASTE A SINGLE PRECIOUSMOMENT EXPLAINING MYSELF OR

EXPLAINING THE WAY I TAKEADVANTAGE OF ALL THE MOMENTS AND

DON'T WASTE ANY OF THEM WITHEXPLANATIONS.

(LAUGHTER)NONE.

THE MOMENTS, I MEAN.

(LAUGHTER)NOT GONNA DO IT.

BUT EVERY ONCE IN A WHILE EVEN INEED TO REMEMBER TO MAKE SURE MY

LIFE-STYLES ARE CRANKED TOLOCO-TURBO-MAX.

THAT'S WHY I WAS I WAS SOEXCITED TO SEE THIS.

>> MY NAME IS FREDERICK AND IWORK WITH TIKKER, THE WRISTWATCH

THAT COUNTS DOWN YOUR LIFE.

(AUDIENCE REACTS)I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU

ABOUT THE DAY YOU ARE GOING TODIE.

>> Stephen: SOUNDS FUN.

GO ON!

>> FOR ALL OF US, LIFE COMESWITH A BEST-BEFORE DATE AND ONE

DAY WE'LL FIND OURSELVES AT THEEND OF THE LINE.

THAT'S WHY WE'VE CREATED TIKKER,THE DEATH WATCH THAT COUNTS DOWN

YOUR LIFE.

JUST SO YOU CAN MAKE EVERYSECOND COUNT.

>> Stephen: YES, TIKKER, THEWATCH THAT CONSTANTLY REMINDS

YOU YOU'RE GONNA DIE.

IT'S A GREAT GIFT FOR THE WHOLEFAMILY BECAUSE, DON'T FORGET,

THEY'RE GONNA DIE, TOO.

I'VE GOT TO SAY, I WAS SURPRISEDTO SEE OBAMA AT YOUR FUNERAL, BY

THE WAY.

(LAUGHTER)I GUESS HE JUST WANTED TO MAKE

SURE THE DEATH PANEL FINISHEDTHE JOB.

(AUDIENCE REACTS)FOLKS, TIKKER ISN'T JUST A WAY

TO DIGITALLY PINPOINT THEINEVITABLE MOMENT WHEN YOU WERE

DEVOURED BY THE WOLF OFOBLIVION.

IT'S ALSO A REMINDER TO HAVESOME FUN!

>> ALL WE HAVE TO DO IS LEARNHOW TO CHERISH THE TIME AND THE

LIFE THAT WE HAVE BEEN GIVEN.

TO HONOR IT.

SUCK THE MARROW FROM IT.

SEIZE THE DAY AND FOLLOW OURHEARTS!

AND THE BEST WAY TO DO THIS ISTO REALIZE THAT SECONDS, DAYS,

AND YEARS ARE PASSING NEVER TOCOME AGAIN!

(LAUGHTER).

>> Stephen: WHISPERING)NOT YET!

FOLKS, I'M SURE YOU'RE ASKING,HOW CAN A WATCH KNOW WHEN YOU'RE

GOING TO DIE?

IT'S NOT AN OLD GYPSY WOMAN WHOLIVES IN THE WOODS.

I BROUGHT YOU A LOCK OF HIS HAIRESMERALDA!

WHY ISN'T JIMMY FALLON AGINGFASTER?

(APPLAUSE)HERE'S HOW IT WORKS.

FOLKS, HERE'S HOW IT WORKS.

YOU SIMPLY FILL OUT AQUESTIONNAIRE ABOUT YOUR HEALTH

HABITS, RISK FACTORS AND AGETHEN TIKKER WILL GENERATE THE

TIME DOWN TO THE SECOND THAT YOUHAVE LEFT.

(AUDIENCE REACTS)SO IF YOU'RE 30 WITH A HISTORY

OF SERIOUS DRUG ABUSE, YOU MAYONLY HAVE 40 MORE YEARS TO LIVE.

(LAUGHTER)IN FACT, I'M WEARING A TIKKER

RIGHT NOW SO I'M ALL SET.

TIME TO SEIZE THE DAY BYCELEBRATING MY BIRTHDAY A LITTLE

BIT EARLY!

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)LET'S SEE EXACTLY HOW MUCH TIME

I'VE GOT LEFT.

(GASPS)(LAUGHTER)

(GASPS)(LAUGHTER)

(AUDIENCE REACTS)♪ AND MANY MORE

WE'LL BE RIGHT BACK.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)

>> Stephen: WELCOME BACK,EVERYBODY, MY GUEST TONIGHT SAYS

OUR HABITS CONTROL OUR BEHAVIOR.

HERE'S THE PART WHERE I RUN OVERTHERE.

PLEASE WELCOME CHARLES DUHIGG.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE).

>> Stephen: HEY, CHARLES,THANKS SO MUCH FOR COMING ON.

NICE TO MEET YOU.

YOU'RE THE PULITZER PRIZEWINNING AUTHOR, YOU WRITE FOR

THE "NEW YORK TIMES."

YOU'RE A BUSINESS INVESTIGATIVEREPORTER BUT YOU ALSO GOT THIS

BOOK CALLED "THE POWER OF HABIT:WHY WE DO WHAT WE DO IN LIFE AND

IN BUSINESS."

IT'S OUT IN PAPER BACK NOW.

62 WEEKS ON THE BEST-SELLERLIST.

DID PEOPLE STILL WANT TO BUY ITOR IS IT A FORCE OF HABIT?

>> IT'S ABSOLUTE HABIT.

>> Stephen: WE DON'T NEED TOTALK ABOUT IT.

WE'LL JUST KEEP GOING.

EVERY HABIT HAS THREE PARTS,THERE'S A CUE, WHICH IS A

TRIGGER.

THEN THE BEHAVIOR ITSELF THENFINALLY A REWARD.

>> Stephen: I'LL GIVE YOU ANEXAMPLE --

>> SO FOR INSTANCE WHEN YOU BACKYOUR CAR OUT OF THE DRIVEWAY

YOU'RE PROBABLY TO THINK ABOUTOTHER THINGS.

>> Stephen: I CLOSE MY EYESAND GUN IT.

>> (LAUGHS)THAT'S BECAUSE SOME PART OF YOUR

BRAIN IS ANTICIPATING THE SENSEOF RELIEF YOU'LL HAVE WHEN YOUR

CAR ACTUALLY MAKES IT INTO THESTREETS.

>> Stephen: OH!

>> AND EVEN IF YOU'RE NOT AWAREOF THAT, THAT DEVELOPS A

NEUROLOGICAL HABIT THAT YOU CANTAKE ADVANTAGE OF, CLOSE YOUR

EYES OR THINK ABOUT CHANGING THERADIO STATION OR TALK TO YOUR

KIDS.

HABITS -->> Stephen: SO I'VE -- I GET A

PLEASURE RESPONSE WHEN I'VEACHIEVED THIS TASK?

>> ABSOLUTELY.

AND YOU ANTICIPATE THAT TASK.

THERE WAS A STUDY THAT WAS DONETHAT SAID ABOUT 40% TO 45% OF

EVERYTHING WE DO EVERYDAY IS AHABIT.

YOU MIGHT NOT BE AWARE OF MOSTOF THEM.

>> Stephen: THOSE KIND OFHABITS, ISN'T THAT LIKE AN

ADDICTION?

DON'T YOU NEED A HIGHER ANDHIGHER DOSE EVERY TIME?

>> (LAUGHS).

>> Stephen: SHOULDN'T I GET ALONGER AND LONGER DRIVEWAY?

(LAUGHTER)>> ABSOLUTELY.

>> Stephen: OR BACK OUT OF MYDRIVEWAY ON HEROIN?

>> THAT MIGHT DO THE TRICK.

>> Stephen: SO 40% TO 45% OFWHAT THE AVERAGE PERSON TKPHUZ A

DAY IS OUT OF HABIT, WE'RE NOTTHINKING ABOUT WHAT WE'RE DOING?

>> THIS IS AMAZING BECAUSE ITLETS YOUR BRAIN --

EVOLUTIONARILY THIS HAS ALLOWEDUS TO SUCCEED.

OUR BRAIN CAN TAKE PATTERNS ANDMAKE THEM AUTOMATIC WHICH MEANS

WE HAVE TIME TO INVENT FIRE ORSPEARS OR VIDEO GAMES OR

SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

>> VERY SIMILAR TO THOSE THREE.

>> ABSOLUTELY.

IF YOU DIDN'T FORM HABITS WEWOULD BE IN TROUBLE EVERYDAY.

THE TROUBLE IS OFTEN TIMES YOURBRAIN IS BAD AT CHOOSING HABITS.

YOU LIKE TO EAT DOUGHNUTS ORCOOKIES HABITUALLY.

>> Stephen: COOKIES AREWONDERFUL.

>> UNLESS YOU'RE TRYING TO LOSESOME WEIGHT.

AND THE PROBLEM IS THAT WHEN WETRY AND STRUCTURE OUR BRAIN IN

CERTAIN WAYS SO THAT WE DON'TDEVELOP BAD HABITS, WE TEND NOT

TO PAY ATTENTION TO THESE CUESAND THESE REWARDS.

THIS IS THE REAL INSIGHT IS THATIF YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT'S

TRIGGERING THE BEHAVIOR AND WHATREWARD IT'S DELIVERING TO YOU

THEN YOU GET THIS CONTROL OVERSHAPING THAT HABIT.

>> Stephen: WHAT'S TRIGGERINGMY BEHAVIOR WITH A COOKIE IS

THAT COOKIES ARE FANTASTIC.

>> (LAUGHS).

>> Stephen: RIGHT?

THEY'RE DELICIOUS.

>> I HAD A COOKIE HABIT MYSELFAND I'D CALL THESE FANCY

PSYCHOLOGISTS AND AT THE END OFTHE CONVERSATION I'D SAY "I HAVE

A FRIEND WITH A BAD COOKIEHABIT."

AND WHAT THEY SAID IS "WHAT'STHE REWARD?"

I SAID "A COOKIE."

THEY SAID "NO, REWARDS ARE MORECOMPLICATED LIKE THAT.

A COOKIE IS 12 OR 13 REWARDS INONE BUNDLE."

>> Stephen: OH, YEAH, BECAUSEOATMEAL CHOCOLATE CHIP IS WARM

AND GOOEY AND THE MILK IF YOUKEEP THE REFRIGERATOR REALLY

LOW, THAT SPIKE OF FRESH COLDAROUND THE COOKIE.

DO YOU WANT A COOKIE RIGHT NOW?

>> I KIND OF DO WANT A COOKIERIGHT NOW.

SO ARE YOU EATING THE COOKIEBECAUSE YOU'RE HUNGRY?

WHICH CASE YOU COULD HAVE ANAPPLE WHICH WOULD WORK JUST AS

WELL.

>> Stephen: SHUT UP!

>> (LAUGHS).

>> Stephen: SHUT UP!

>> SORRY!

>> Stephen: YOU SEEM LIKE ALOT OF FUN.

"HERE KIDS, HAPPY HALLOWEEN.

HERE'S YOUR APPLE!">> (LAUGHS)

OR MAYBE YOU NEED A BURST OFENERGY AND THE SUGAR GIVES YOU

THE ENERGY, WHICH MEANS YOUCOULD HAVE A CUP OF COFFEE.

THAT WOULD DO JUST AS WELL ANDYOU CAN REPLACE THAT COOKIE

HABIT WITH A COFFEE HABIT.

IN MY CASE IT TURNED OUT WHEN IWAS GOING UP TO THE CAFETERIA TO

GET A COOKIE THAT'S WHEN I SAWMY FRIENDS FROM THE "NEW YORK

TIMES" AND WE WOULD TALK ANDGOSSIP.

THE SOCIALIZATION WAS THE REWARDDRIVING THE HABIT.

>> Stephen: SO YOU DIDN'T EVENKNOW THAT WAS WHAT WAS DRIVING

-->> I HAD NO IDEA.

>> Stephen: I DON'T LIKE THISTHEORY AND I'LL TELL YOU WHAT.

I'M SURE IT'S A GREAT BOOK ANDEVERYONE SHOULD BUY IT, BUT

EVERY MOMENT OF MY LIFE IS AMOMENT OF CLARITY AND CHOICE.

I'M NOT ONE OF THE MINDLESSJELLYFISH BEING PULLED ALONG IN

THE TIDE OF HUMAN AFFAIRS.

I WAKE UP IN THE MORNING.

I SAY TO MY HEART "CONTINUEBEATING."

(LAUGHTER)EVERY MOMENT OF MY LIFE IS A

CHOICE BECAUSE GOD GAVE ME FREEWILL.

IT SOUNDS LIKE ANTI-FREE WILL.

BUT YOU KNOW WE'RE DETERMINISTNATURE TO WHAT YOU'RE SAYING.

>> YOU'RE AN EXCEPTIONAL HUMANBEING.

UNFORTUNATELY, THE REST OF USHAVE TO LIVE IN THE REAL WORLD.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE).

>> Stephen: OKAY, ALL RIGHT.

IS IT -- THESE HABITS, THEY'REGOOD HABITS AND BAD HABIT,

RIGHT?

>> ABSOLUTELY.

AND YOU DECIDE WHETHER THEY'REGOOD OR BAD.

TO YOUR BRAIN THEY SEEM THESAME.

IT SEEMS LIKE A WAY TO SAVEENERGY.

I KNOW I LIKE THE THING, I KNOWTHERE'S THE TRIGGER FOR IT, I'LL

MAKE IT AN AUTOMATIC PATTERN.

>> Stephen: THERE ANEVOLUTIONARY COMPONENT TO THIS?

>> ABSOLUTELY.

>> Stephen: THEN WHY DO WEHAVE ANY PATTERNS OR HABITS THAT

OUR -- THAT ARE BAD FOR US?

WHY DIDN'T WE JUST EVOLVE TOONLY LIKE THINGS THAT ARE GOOD

FOR US?

>> WELL, IT'S INTERESTING,RIGHT?

BECAUSE TAKE COOKIES, FORINSTANCE.

COOKIES ARE GOOD FOR US IN A LOTOF WAYS, RIGHT?

>> Stephen: THEY MAKE USHAPPY.

>> THEY MAKE US HAPPY.

IN A STATE OF NATURE THEY WOULDGIVE US CALORIES AND ENERGY.

FOR ME IT'S A TOOL FORSOCIALIZING WITH MY FRIENDS.

>> Stephen: AGAIN, I DON'T BUYTHAT, BUT GO AHEAD.

>> (LAUGHS).

>> Stephen: THAT SOUNDS LIKE-- THAT'S LIKE A REALLY GREAT

JUSTIFICATION TO STAY ON YOURDIET.

"WHAT I REALLY WANT IS FRIENDS.

FRIENDS WITH CHOCOLATE CHIPS."

WELL, CHARLES, THANK YOU SO MUCHFOR JOINING ME.

>> THANK YOU!

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE).

>> Stephen: CHARLES DUHIGG,"THE POWER OF HABIT."

WE'LL BE RIGHT BACK.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE).

>> Stephen: THAT'S IT FOR "THEREPORT," EVERYBODY.

GOOD NIGHT.