January 23, 2014 - Patricia Churchland

  • 01/23/2014

Riots break out in the Ukraine, Tim Wu weighs in on net neutrality, China bootlegs The Report, and Patricia Churchland discusses "Touching a Nerve."

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)>> Stephen: WELCOME TO THE

REPORT.

THANK YOU FOR JOINING US,LADIES AND GENTLEMEN.

>> STEPHEN, STEPHEN, STEPHEN,STEPHEN, STEPHEN, STEPHEN!

STEPHEN, STEPHEN, STEPHEN!

STEPHEN, STEPHEN, STEPHEN!

>> THANK YOU, LADIES ANDGENTLEMEN.

THANKS SO MUCH.

YOU KNOW, FOLKS, THANK YOUFOR WATCHING THE SHOW.

>>.

>> Stephen: I DON'T THINK IHAVE TO TELL ANYBODY WHAT

THIS SHOW IS ALL ABOUT.

BUT I KNOW AS AN AMERICAN ITIS EVERY CITIZEN'S DUTY TO

FIGHT FOR FREEDOM.

THAT'S WHY I HAVE BEEN SOINSPIRED BY THE RAG TAG

GROUP OF REBELS IN THEUKRAINE.

WHICH IS ATTEMPTING TO BREAKLONG-STANDING POLITICAL TIES

WITH THE RUSSIA.

NOW BOTH OF THESE COUNTRIESARE SOME OF OUR MOST

IMPORTANT TRADING PARTNERSAS THEY CONTAIN THE WORLD'S

LARGEST STRATEGIC RESERVES OFALCOHOLISM.

NOW I GOT TO TELL YOU, TRUTHBE TOLD, I'M NOT ENTIRELY

CLEAR ON WHO THESE REBELSARE OR WHERE THE UKRAINE IS.

BUT FOLKS, I DO KNOW I AM ONTHEIR SIDE.

BECAUSE LET'S FACE IT,NOBODY RIOTS LIKE THE SLAVS.

FIRST OF ALL LET'S JUST TALKCOURAGE.

LOOK AT THIS PRIEST, RIGHTIN FRONT OF THE THICK OF THE

ACTION HOLDING UP A CROSS.

I'M NOT SURE WHICH SIDE HASTHE VAMPIRES BUT THAT'S KIND

OF COOL.

(LAUGHTER)AND THE PROTESTORS HAVE GOT

SOME BALLS.

EVEN THOUGH THEY AREOUTMANNED AND OUTGUNNED,

THEY HAVE NOT GIVEN UP.

THEY MADE THEIR OWN CATAPULT.

(LAUGHTER)SO EVEN IF THEY LOSE THE

REVOLUTION THEY'RE READY FORNEXT SEASON'S PUNKIN CHUNKIN,

PUNKIN CHUNKIN.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)>> Stephen: PUNKIN.

PUNKIN CHUNKIN.

AND THE POLICE MAY HAVE ALLTHE LATEST RIOT GEAR BUT THE

PROTESTORS HAVE KITCHENEQUIPMENT.

(LAUGHTER)FOLKS, YOU CAN TELL, YOU CAN

TELL FROM THIS MAN'S FACE,HE'S FEELING THE STRAIN.

AND THAT HELMET IS COMPLETELYIMPENETRABLE UNLESS THE

POLICE SOMEHOW DEVELOP HOTWATER TECHNOLOGY.

(LAUGHTER)IF THIS REVOLUTION SUCCEEDS

200 YEARS FROM NOW THECOLLANDER WILL BE THE SYMBOL

OF UKRAINIAN FREEDOM JUSTLIKE OUR FOUNDERS TRICORN

HATS WHICH BY THE WAY WERENOT NEARLY AS GOOD FOR

DRAINING PASTA.

(LAUGHTER)WELL, MY UKRAINIAN FRIENDS,

I STAND WITH YOU.

AND TO PROVE IT, I WILL WEARTHIS COLANDER.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)OH, LET FREEDOM RING.

I WILL WEAR THIS COLANDERUNTIL YOU ACHIEVE OR DEFEAT

WHATEVER IT IS YOU AREFIGHTING FOR OR AGAINST.

UNTIL THEN, I JOIN YOURBATTLE CRY, AL DENTE!

(LAUGHTER)NATION, ENOUGH OF THAT.

ALL RIGHT.

NATION, I LOVE THE INTERNET.

AND THE INTERNET LOVES MEBACK.

WHY ELSE WOULD IT OFFER MESO MUCH SEX.

THAT'S WHY I WAS SHOCKEDLAST WEEK WHEN I HEARD THIS

GOSSIP ABOUT THE INTERNETFROM ITS FRENEMY,

TELEVISION.

>> THE WAY WE USE THEINTERNET COULD CHANGE AFTER

FEDERAL APPEALS COURT STRUCKDOWN NET NEUTRALITY RULES.

>> THE FALLOUT OVER ABIG

DECISION THAT MAY CHANGE HOWTHE WEB WORKS AND THE FUTURE

OF SO-CALLED NET NEUTRALITY.

>> WE COULD BE WITNESSINGTHE END OF THE INTERNET AS

WE KNOW IT.

>> Stephen: NATION, I HOPEYOU KNOW WHAT THIS MEANS.

BECAUSE I DO NOT.

(LAUGHTER)MAYBE-- MAYBE THE TV KNOWS.

>> NET NEUTRALITY IS THEIDEA THAT BROADBAND INTERNET

SERVICE PROVIDERS COMCAST,TIME WARNER CABLE, VERIZON

AND OTHERS SHOULD TREATEVERYTHING THAT FLOWS ACROSS

THE INTERNET EQUALLY.

>> THANKS, TV.

>> YOU SEE, UNDER NETNEUTRALITY EVERY SITE ON THE

INTERNET HAS TO BE EQUALLYACCESSIBLE THROUGH THE USER,

WHETHER IT BE A HUGEBEHEMOTH LIKE GOOGLE OR SOME

OBSCURE LITTLE MOM AND POPSITE LIKE BINGE.

BUT FOLKS-- (LAUGHTER)

THIS COURT RULING, THISRECENT COURT RULING END ITS

ALL OF THAT.

>> NET NEUTRALITY ADVOCATESSAY THIS RULING COULD ALSO

ALLOW INTERNET SERVICEPROVIDERS TO SLOW

EVERYTHING.

AND THEN CHARGE YOU EXTRA TOALLOW FASTER ACCESS TO

PARTICULAR SITE LIKE AMAZON.

>> YOU PITE HAVE TO PAY MOREFOR SPECIFIC WEB SITES.

THERE ARE A MILLIONDIFFERENT WAYS THAT YOU

MIGHT HAVE TO PAY.

>> FOLKS, I WILL NOT STANDFOR MY CONTENT BEING HELD

HOSTAGE FOR CASH.

WE ARE MUST RISE AS ONEAGAINST THE CABLE COMPANIES

AND-- (CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)

AND-- (CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)

FOLKS, I HAVE RETHOUGHT MYPOSITION ON NET NEUTRALITY.

WHAT I MEANT TO SAY WAS LIKEALL AMERICANS I LOVE MY

CABLE COMPANY.

THEY ADD SO MUCH OF MY LIFE,FOR INSTANCE ALL THE TIME I

GET TO SPEND WITH MY FAMILYDURING THE THREE MINUTES IT

TRACHES FOR MY DVR TOPROCESS A CHANNEL CHANGE.

AND IT WILL BE BETTER, THINKABOUT IT, VERIZON SAYS THIS

RULING ALLOWS BROADBANDPROVIDERS TO OFFER NEW AND

INNOVATIVE SERVICES TO THEIRCUSTOMERS WHILE ALLOWING

MORE ROOM FOR INNOVATION ANDKEEPING THE INTERNET A HUB

OF INNOVATION.

SEE?

NET NEUTRALITY IS ONLY BEENDEAD A WEEK AND ALREADY

THREE INNOVATIVE USES OF THEWORD INNOVATION.

ITS USED TO HAVE TO MEANSOMETHING.

(APPLAUSE)FOLKS, I'M SO INSPIRED BY

THIS NEW PARADIGM OF HOLDINGCONTENT HOSTAGE THAT I HAVE

IMPLEMENTED A FEW INVASIONSOF MY OWN HERE AT THE

REPORT.

SUCH-- INNOVATIONS SUCH ASMY OWN 2-FINITY PHONE

SERVICE WHERE MY EMPLOYEESCONTINUE TO ENJOY UNFETTERED

ACCESS TO THE FIRST TWODIGITS OF ANY NUMBER THEY

DIRE.

ARE YOU ON FIRE?

THEN JUST DIAL 9-1.

(LAUGHTER)NEED ANOTHER 1?

REASONABLE CHARGES APPLY.

FOLKS, I SEE NOW THAT NETNEUTRALITY IS JUST STUPID.

HERE TO SAY IS NOT PLEASEWELCOME COLUMBIA LAW

PROFESSOR AND AUTHOR OF THEMASTER SWITCH, TIM WU, THANK

YOU SO MUCH FOR BEING HERE.

GOOD TO SEE YOU.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)YOU GOT THE BOOK HERE.

CALLED THE MASTER SWITCH.

ALL ABOUT THE INTERNET.

YOU'RE THE INTERNET GUY.

FIRST OF ALL, LET'S SETTLETHIS.

NET NEUTRALITY, GOOD THINGOR A BAD THING?

>> I WOULD HAVE TO SAY GOODTHING.

>> Stephen: BUT YOU WILLADMIT IT IS A STUPID NAME,

RIGHT.

NET NEUTRALITY.

>> IS A GREAT NAME.

>> Stephen: WHO CAME UP-- .

>> Stephen: WITHOUT CAMEWITH THAT GAME.

>> I DID.

>> Stephen: AS SOMEONE WHOIS A CONTENT CONSUME ERR, I

GO ON, I USE THE INTERNETAND I WATCH ALL THE THINGS.

AND I-- IS THAT GOING TOCOST ME MORE TO GET WHAT I

WANT, IF I WATCH LIKE A TVSHOW ON THE INTERNET.

>> WHAT WILL HAPPEN IS THATNETFLIX WILL START COSTING

MORE, GOOGLE MAY COST MORE,EVERYTHING MAY COST MORE ON

THE INTERNET BECAUSE THEY'RENOW BEING BILLED, THEY'RE

BEING TOLD, SO WHAT THECABLE AND PHONE COMPANIES

WANT TO DO IS IMPOSE A TOLLON THE INTERNET TO REACH

THEIR CUSTOMERS.

>> Stephen: SHOULDN'T RICHPEOPLE GET BETTER THINGS?

I MEANS THAT'S WHY YOUBECOME RICH.

>> RIGHT.

>> SEE, THE THING IS IN THISCASE, IT'S NOT EVEN RICH

PEOPLE ARE GETTING MORE,IT'S JUST THE CABLE COMPANY

OR THE PHONE COMPANY.

IN OTHER WORDS, THE CABLEAND PHONE COMPANIES POSITION

IS WE WOULD LIKE MORE MONEY.

AND LAST TIME I CHECKED ITHINK THEY HAVE ENOUGH

MONEY.

THEY JUST WANT MOURN.

>> Stephen: I'M NOT SUREWHAT THIS CONCEPT OF ENOUGH

MONEY IS.

(LAUGHTER)IS THIS GOING TO AFFECT LIKE,

AND I HOPE I'M PRONOUNCINGTHIS CORRECTLY, PORNOGRAPHY?

(LAUGHTER)BECAUSE NETFLIX STREAMS A

LOT OF VIDEO BUT WHOEVERTHAT IS OUT THERE WHO MAKES

PORNOGRAPHY, THEY STREAM ALOT OF VIDEOS TOO.

>> IT ACTUALLY COULD.

BECAUSE THE BASIC POSITIONTHE PHONE AND CABLE

COMPANIES IS IF YOU ARE'SMAKING MONEY, WE WOULD LIKE

OUR CUT.

GIVEN THAT PORNOGRAPHY SEEMSTO MAKE MONEY, SEEMS TO BE

POPULAR.

THE BASIC IDEA IS YOU HAVE ARIGHT TO GET-- .

>> Stephen: SOME PEOPLE AREIN IT FOR JUST THE LOVE OF

THE GAME.

(LAUGHTER)WITHIN THE BASIC IDEA IS IF

YOU PAY FOR THE INTERNET YOUSHOULD HAVE THE RIGHT TO GET

WHATEVER YOU WANT.

AND THE PHONE COMPANY, ANDTHE CALL COMPANIES SHOULDN'T

BE DECIDING WHAT THAT IS,WHETHER OR NOT IT'S

PORNOGRAPHY, WHETHER OR NOTIT'S A BLOG OR EVEN

DOWNLOADS OF YOUR SHOW.

>> Stephen: OKAY, BUT FORTHE INTERNET SERVICE

PROVIDERS OUT THERE, THEISPs FOR THEM THIS IS A

MATTER OF FREE SPEECH.

THEY WANT TO BE FREE TOCHARGE YOU FOR SPEECH.

>> RIGHT.

THEIR THEORY-- .

>> Stephen: WHY ARE YOUAGAINST FREE SPEECH?

WHY ARE YOU AGAINST FREESPEECH?

(APPLAUSE)SO THEIR THEORY IS THAT THE

RIGHT TO SENSOR THINGS ISTHEIR FREE SPEECH.

IN OTHER WORDS, IF THEY WANTTO BLOCK GOOGLE OR NETFLIX

OR CHARGE MORE FOR NETFLIXTHAT'S FREE SPEECH.

THAT IS NOT MY IDEA OF FREESPEECH.

MY IDEA IS WHEN YOU USE THEINTERNET YOU SHOULD BE ABLE

TO GET WHAT YOU WANT ANDWHEN SOMEONE WANTS TO SPEAK

WITH YOU ON THE INTERNETTHEY SHOULD BE ABLE

TO-- THAT IS ACTUAL FREESPEECH.

>> THERE HAS TO BE SOMEONEIN CONTROL.

YOU'RE ON MY SHOW.

YOU'VE GOT FREE SPEECH RIGHTNOW BUT IF I-- LET EVERYBODY

COME ON MY SHOW AT ONCE WEWOULDN'T BE ABLE TO HEAR YOU,

DON'T YOU UNDERSTAND.

>> YOU KNOW, THAT DOESN'TALWAYS NEED TO BE SOMEONE IN

CONTROL, ACTUALLY.

>> YOU KNOW WE DRIVE DOWNTHE ROAD--

(LAUGHTER)WHEN YOU DRIVE ACROSS THE

BROOKLYN BRIDGE, THERE'S NOONE DECIDING WHO GETS TO

DRE ON THE BRIDGE.

>> NO, BUT ON THE GEORGEWASHINGTON BRIDGE-- CHRISTIE

DECIDES.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)TIM WU, THANK YOU SO MUCH

FOR JOINING ME.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)>> Stephen: WELCOME BACK,

EVERYBODY, THANK YOU SO MUCH,FOLKS.

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, THISSHOW FROM DAY ONE OF

BROADCAST, THIS SHOW HASALWAYS BEEN ALL ABOUT

AMERICA.

BUT I HAVE RECENTLY LEARNEDTHAT I HAVE A GLOBAL REACH

AROUND.

EVIDENTLY THERE IS A NEW TVSHOW IN CHINA INSPIRED BY

ME.

AND BY INSPIRED BY I MEANINFLAGRANT VIOLATION OF

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYRIGHTS.

JIM?

LET'S SHOCK THE CONSCIENCEOF A NATION.

LET'S SHOCK THE CONSCIENCEOF A NATION.

>> Stephen: I'VE BEEN RIPPEDOFF BY THE CHINESE!

(LAUGHTER)FOLKS, THIS IS NOTHING SHORT

OF WHOLESALE THEFT.

AND I LOVE IT.

(LAUGHTER)BECAUSE ONLY THE BIGGEST

HITS GET CHINESE BOOTLEGGED.

SEINFELD KNEW HE FINALLYMADE IT WHEN CHINA STARTED

AIRING HIGH-PANTS PETTY JEW.

(LAUGHTER)NOW MY KNOCKOFF, MY KNOCKOFF

IS CALLED THE BANQUET, ITHINK, I DON'T READ CHINESE.

AND THEY HAVE LOVINGLYPLAGIARIZED EVERYTHING ABOUT

MY SHOW FROM MY ROCKIN MUSICTO MY AWESOME IRONMAN

LANDING TO MY HAVING A POINTOF VIEW.

(LAUGHTER)WHICH FRANKLY, I DONE EVEN

KNOW YOU HOW I FEEL ABOUT.

OF COURSE, THERE ARE SOMESLIGHT DIFFERENTS, INSTEAD

OF MY EAGLE OF TRUTH THEBANQUET HAS A HELICOPTER

BECAUSE EAGLES ARE NOTSTRONG ENOUGH TO FLAP IN

CHINESE AIR.

(LAUGHTER)AND THE SHOW, I GOT TO SAY,

THE SHOWDOES AN ADMIRABLE JOB

OF CAPTURING MY CRONKITE-IANNEWS DIGNITY.

MY CRONKITEAN NEWS DIGNITY.

IT'S FUNNY BECAUSE THEGOVERNMENT SAYS SO.

NATION, NATION, DO YOUUNDERSTAND WHAT THIS MEANS?

THE BANQUET NETWORK NINGXIATV REACHES MORE THAN 400

MILLION VIEWERS.

AS THEY SAY ON THE BANQUET,THOSE KIND OF NUMBERS GIVE

ME A-- (LAUGHTER)

THE REPORT, THE COLBERTREPORT NOW HAS A SERIOUS

TOEHOLD IN CHINA AND I'MPREPARED TO DO ANYTHING TO

APPEAL TO THE LARGEST MARKETBE EARTH.

JIMMY, LET'S MAKE OURCHINESE VIEWERS FEEL RIGHT

AT HOME.

(LAUGHTER)OH, HMMMM, HMMMM, I CAN

ALMOST SMELL MY iPHONE BEINGMADE.

ALL RIGHT, THAT'S ENOUGH,THAT'S ENOUGH.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)AND I HAVE FIRED JAY THE

INTERN IN FAVOR OF AHARDWORKING CHINESE

REPLACEMENT, GENTLEMAN-MESS,THE INTERN, EVERYBODY,

PLEASE WELCOME, THERE YOU GO.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)NI HAO, JA-MES IS THAT HOW

YOU PRONOUNCE IT.

>> IT'S JAMES.

I GREW UP IN SEATTLE.

>> WELL COULD TO-- WELCOMETO AMERICA JA-MES.

>> DO YOU WANT ME TO GO ON ACOFFEE RUN?

>> YOUR PEOPLE CALL IT TEA.

AND YES, I WOULD LOVE SOMETEA, BY WHICH I MEAN COFFEE.

>> OKAY.

>> Stephen: OKAY.

(APPLAUSE)THEY'RE VERY LOYAL PEOPLE.

BUT FOLKS IF I REALLY WANT ACHUNK OF CHINA'S BILLION

EYEBALL AUDIENCE I NEED TOGO THERE MYSELF.

THE BANQUET, I DEMAND YOUINVITE ME TO CHINA TO APPEAR

ON YOUR SHOW.

JUST SAY THE WORD, AND I'LLSTART DIGGING.

>> Stephen: WELCOME BACK,EVERYBODY.

MY GUEST TONIGHT IS A NEUROSCIENTIST WHO ANSWERS

PHILOSOPHICAL QUESTIONS BYSTUDYING THE BRAIN, I AM

GOING TO GET HER WITH MYMEDULA OBLON-GOTCHAS.

PLEASE WELCOME PATRICIACHURCHLAND.

HEY, PATRICIA, THANK YOU SOMUCH FOR COPPING ON.

>> NICE TO BE HERE.

>> Stephen: ALL RIGHTYDIETY.

YOU ARE A PROFESSOR HE MERTHAT OF PHILOSOPHY AT UC SAN

DIEGO.

YOU RECEIVED A McARTHURGENIUS AWARD FOR YOUR WORK

IN NEUROPHILOSOPHY AND YOURNEW BOOK IS CALLED TOUCHING

A NERVE, THE SELF-.

>> FIRST OF ALL, WHAT ISNEUROPHILOSOPHY.

DID YOU JUST PUT THE NEUROONTHERE BECAUSE AS A

PHILOSOPHY MAJOR YOU WOULDNEVER GET A JOB?

WHAT IS NEUROPHILOSOPHY.

>> IT HAS TO DO WITH THEINTERFACE BETWEEN THE

DISCOVERIES THAT WE AREMAKING IN NEUROSCIENCE

AND HOW THOSE DISCOVERIESMIGHT HAVE AN IMPACT ON

TRADITIONAL PHILOSOPHICALQUESTIONS, QUESTIONS ABOUT

WHERE DOES MORALITY COMEFROM, HOW DO WE PAKE

DECISIONS?

WHAT IS THE NATURE OFCONSCIOUSNESS, HOW DO WE

LEARN ABOUT THE NATURE OFTHE EXTERNAL WORLD.

>> Stephen: THERE IS ALREADYA BOOK FOR THAT.

IT'S CALLED THE BIBLE.

(LAUGHTER)RIGHT?

HAVE YOU READ IT?

HAVE YOU READ IT WITHIN WELL,YEAH.

>> Stephen: DID YOU READ THEBIBLE WITHIN LITTLE BITS AND

PIECES.

>> Stephen: OKAY.

YOU DON'T REALLY UNDERSTANDTHE WORLD COMPLETELY YET.

ALL RIGHT.

BOOK OF THE REVELATIONCOVERS A LOT OF THIS STUFF.

SO OUR MORALITY DOES NOTCOME FROM MY BRAIN, MY BRAIN

GETS FILLED WITH MORALITYNO, IT DOESN'T.

>> Stephen: OKAY, HOLD ON ASECOND..

YES, IT DOES.

BECAUSE WE CAN PLAY THATGAME ALL DAY LONG.

>> IT TURNS OUT THAT SOCIALANIMALS, SOCIAL MAMMALS OF

WHICH YOU ARE ONE KIND.

>> Stephen: OKAY.

>> BUT ALSO THERE ARE WOLVESAND BABOONS AND MONKEYS

AND CHIMPANZEE.

>> Stephen: NO DIFFERENCEBETWEEN ALL OF THEM, ALL THE

SAME. HAVE A SOCIALLIFE.

>> Stephen: UH-HUH.

>> AND THE SOCIALITY DEPENDSVERY MUCH ON VERY SPECIFIC

STRUCTURES IN THE BRAIN.

IF THOSE STRUCTURES ARE NOTIN PLACE, AN ANIMAL IS NOT

SOCIAL.

AND THE ATTACHMENT FOREXAMPLE BETWEEN PARENTS AND

CHILDREN ALL DEPEND ON VERYSPECIFIC CIRCUITRY AND VERY

SPECIFIC CHEMICALS.

>> Stephen: SO I LOVE MYCHILD BECAUSE OF CIRCUITS AND

CHEMICALS?

>> YES.

AND WE KNOW THAT BECAUSE WEKNOW FROM OTHER STUDIES OF

RODENTS WHOSE BRAINS AREVERY SIMILAR TO OURS IN

THEIR STRUCTURE.

>> Stephen: SPEAK FORYOURSELF, GO AHEAD WITHIN

THAT IF YOU DISRUPT THATCIRCUITRY OR YOU CHANGE THE

CHEMICAL BALANCE, THAT THEATTACHMENT AND THE BONDING

BETWEEN MOTHER AND BABY DOESNOT EXIST.

>> Stephen: SO WHAT IS THECHEMICAL.

WHAT IS THE CHEMICAL I NEEDTO LOVE SOMEBODY?

>> WELL, THERE ARE A NUMBERTHAT ARE VERY IMPORTANT BUT

ONE IN PARTICULAR THAT ISIMPORTANT IS CALLED OXY TOW

SIN.

>> Stephen: YOU CAN GET APRESCRIPTION FOR THAT, CAN'T

YOU, GRIND THAT STUFF UP,VERY TASTY.

>> OXY TOCIN IS A VERYSIMPLE PEPTIDE BUT

IT'S EXTREMELY IMPORTANT INMAMMALS FOR THE ATTACHMENT

OF PARENTS TO OFFSPRING.

BUT IT TURNS OUT THAT IT'SALSO ESSENTIAL FOR THE

ATTACHMENT OF MATES.

AND SO THERE ARE A NUMBER OFMAMMALLIAN SPECIES WHERE,

FOR EXAMPLE, THERE AREPRAIRIE VOLES AND

MONTANE VOLESAND IT IS KIND OF A

ROLY-POLY RODENT.

>> Stephen: I KNOW WHAT ITIS, YOU DON'T HAVE TO

PATRONIZE HIM.

(LAUGHTER)>> AND SO IN THE MONTANE VOLES

THE MATURE ONES WILL COMEALONG AND MEET THEY WILL

MATE AND THEN THEY WILL GOON THEIR WAY.

LOOKING FOR MORE ACTION, SHEIS GOING TO HAVE THE BABY.

BUT IN THE PRAIRIE, THEYMEET, THEY MATE, AND NOW

THEY'RE BONDED FOREVER.

AND WHAT THAT MEANS IS THATTHE MALE STAYS WITH THE

FEMALES, GUARDS THE NEST,HELPS TO REAR THE YOUNG.

THEY LIKE TO BE TOGETHER.

IF THEY'RE SEPARATED THEYGET DEPRESSED.

AND IN GENERAL, IF THEDIFFERENT IN THE BRAIN

BETWEEN THE PRAIRIE VOLE ANDTHE MONTANE.

>> THE PRAIRIE VOLE IS ACHRISTIAN.

(LAUGHTER)(APPLAUSE)

>> IT TURNS OUT THAT THEY'RENOT CHRISTIAN IT TURNS OUT

THAT IN ONE VERY SPECIFICPART OF THE REINFORCEMENT

SYSTEM OF THE BRAIN, THATTHE PRAIRIE VOLE HAS A

DIFFERENT ORGANIZATION FROMTHE MONTANE VOLE AND IF

YOU CHANGE THAT ORGANIZATION,THEY BEHAVE LIKE THE

MONTANE VOLE.

>> AND HOW DO YOU DO THAT?

DO YOU CUT IT OUT?

DO YOU GO IN THERE AND CHOPOUT BITS OF THE BRAIN.

>> YOU CAN ACTUALLY DO ITBIOCHEMICALLY.

YOU CAN INTERRUPT THEPATHWAYS OR YOU CAN PRESENT

THE RECEPTORS.

>> SO YOU ARE SAYING THATOXY TOCIN, THE OXYTOCIN THAT

HELPS WITH THE BONDING ANDTHE PRAIRIE VOLES HAVE MORE

OF THAT.

>> YES.

>> Stephen: SO IF YOU HAVE AMAN WHO IS A TOTAL HORN DOG

AND ALWAYS SLEEPING AROUND,IF YOU GAVE HIM SOME OXY

TOCIN WOULD HE SETTLE DOWNWITH THE RIGHT WOMAN?

>> WELL, IT IS ANINTERESTING QUESTION WHICH

WE REALLY DON'T KNOW-- WEDON'T ACTUALLY KNOW THE

ANSWER TO.

>> Stephen: HAVE WE TRIED ITON HUMANS YET.

>> YES, WE HAVE.

>> Stephen: AND WHATHAPPENS.

>> HERE IS THE INTERESTINGTHING.

AND ONE OF THE MOST STRIKINGFINDINGS IT IS THAT DOES

SEEM TO HAVE AN EFFECT ONLEVELS OF TRUST.

AND SO THAT INDIVIDUALS WHOHAVE OXYTOCIN ADMINISTERED

TO THEM WILL SHOW GREATERTRUSTING BEHAVIOR IN A

PARTICULAR SORT OF SITUATIONOR GAME.

>> Stephen: WHEN YOU SAY THESELF AS BRAIN, I THINK OF MY

SOUL AS MYSELF, ARE YOUSAYING THAT I DON'T HAVE

SOUL?

>>(APPLAUSE)

I DON'T KNOW MUCH ABOUT OURNERVOUS SYSTEM BUT I KNOW

YOU HAVE SOME NERVE TO COMEON AND SAY THAT.

PATRICIA, THANK YOU VERYMUCH FOR JOINING ME.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)>> Stephen: THE BOOK IS

TOUCHING A NERVE.

AND SHE DID.

PATRICIA CHURCHLAND.

WE'LL BE RIGHT BACK.

>> Stephen: THAT'S IT FORTHE REPORT, EVERYBODY.

GOOD NIGHT.